Given the specialists concern to identify the scientific methods to evaluate people's honesty, the first specialist built the modern concept of emotions was William James in 1885. For the sake of justice, the first one who built a primitive model of polygraph named Hydrostigmograph was Cesaro Lombroso, in 1885.
Further the psychologist specialists studied and experimented on one hand the reactions of the body in the situation the subject is lying, and on the other hand instruments to capture these psycho-physiological reactions (level of blood pressure, increase of oxygen consumption, dilatation of bronchi, inhibition of fingers' movement etc), all controlled by the vegetative nervous system.
An important contribution to these studies had the psychologist Hugo Munsterberg and the British cardiologist James MacKenzie (1908). In 1921, John A. Larson developed the first portable polygraph, that he made available to the police Berkeley - California S.U.A. In anul 1925, Leonarde Keeler, starting from John A. Larson's works develops a polygraph, thus bulding the modern polygraph.
Between 1938-1941, in the detection laboratory of the scientific Police in Chicago a number of 1122 polygraph tests were sucsessfully conducted, guilt being revealed in 84% of the cases. In 1945, John Reid, by linking the unnoticed muscles activity and the blood pressure, builds the Reid polygraph , that records the blood pressure, pulse, breath, electro thermogalvanic reaction and the muscular reactivity. Biodetection had a different history worldwide , from country to country, it knew variuos forms of development and application.
If we are to start with the country that knows the richest activity of research in the polygraph field, USA, experts such as : John A. Larson, Leonarde Keeler and John Reid made remarkable efforts to improve the polygraph equipment and implicitly the results of their tests. As such, in 1921,John A. Larson in cooperation with the psychology professor Robert Gisele create the portable polygraph able to record at the same time 3 vital functions:
- blood pressure
Leonarde Keeler, in 1928, develops Keeler Polygraph based on the idea borrowed from John A. Larson. Later, in 1945 the polygraph knows a new development brought by John Reid who develops Reid Polygraph able to record at the same time 5 human psyho somatic reactions such as:
- blood pressure
- electro dermogalvanic reaction
- neuro muscular reaction
USA's example is followed by Japan,. country with a powerful development of technique, but which does not improve the apparatus, only takes over the American technique. They use it in the police in a few cases where suspects and witnesses have been examined. The results did not take long to appear, an efficiency of 96,4% being proven. A country aiming to perfect the method of investigation by using the polyhraph tecnique and that obtained notable results is Israel. The results in this sense are communicated by the Israel specialists at the Profeessional Conference of the Scientific Police Departments - APA Convention in 1973 in Miami-Florida.